- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Pain is a Major Secondary Condition Among People with Spinal Cord Injury
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Promoting Enabling and Empowering Fitness Environments to Increase Exercise and Improve Health for People with Multiple Sclerosis
- Designing for Inclusive Play: Applying the Principles of Universal Design to the Playground
- Amputation and Secondary Conditions: Physical Activity Can Reduce Secondary Conditions in Youths With Limb Differences
- Access Board Issues New Accessibility Guidelines
- Play Areas Designed for Access
- Parks and Recreation Budget Cuts "Phase" Accommodation
- Museums, Zoos and Aquariums - Enhancing Accessibility
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Non-Traditional Exercise as a Way of Preventing Secondary Conditions - Part II
- No Limits on Fitness At Crosstrainers Gym
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention
- 2009 All Abilities Team - Chicago Breast Cancer 3-Day
- What do you know about the ADA?
- Defining Secondary Conditions for People with Disabilities
- Responses to the Accessibility Problem in the Photo - 4
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Decrease Secondary Condition Risk by Celebrating National Girls and Women in Sports Day with Exercise
- Fitness Vacations
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Osteoporosis Risk and Low Bone Mineral Density for People with Disabilities
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: The Age of Empowerment: People with Disabilities Decreasing Their Risk of Secondary Condition Development
- Community Spotlight: Seattle Children's PlayGarden
- Strong Headwind on the Road to Accessible Fitness and Recreation
- Choosing a Fitness Center
- Secondary Condition Prevention: Building Your Own "Health Empowerment Zone"
- Active and Inclusive Family Vacations
- New ASTM Initiative: "Inclusive Fitness Equipment Standards"
- The Pathway to Inclusion: From Principle to Profit
- No More Sores: Preventing Pressure Sores for People with SCI
- Can You Identify the Accessibility Problem In this Photo - 1?
- Including People with Disabilities in Challenge Course Operations
- Opportunities to Advocate for Inclusion in Fitness and Recreation
- MODEL FACTSHEET
- Exercise Reduces Secondary Conditions in Children with Cerebral Palsy
- Answers to the Accessibility Problem in the First Photo
- What to Know Before You Go: The Big Questions to Ask Before Arriving at Your "Accessible" Recreation Destination
- Adoption of the Revised ADA Standards for Accessible Design What it Means to Recreation Facilities
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Lower Limb Amputation and Long-Term Prosthesis Use
- Retrofitting an Accessible Whitewater Park
|Jennifer Rowland, Ph.D.|
The term 'secondary conditions' is a term used by several federal funding agencies including the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), as well as in the recent report, The Future of Disability in America published by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), to refer to medical and psychosocial consequences that have causal relationships to a primary disabling condition and are preventable and influenced to some extent by personal (i.e., behavior, age) and environmental (i.e., assistive technology, built environment) factors. As has been discussed previously in this column, there is also some debate about the broader use of the term secondary conditions to reflect such conditions as social isolation, difficulty forming relationships, and high levels of unemployment.
Despite the differences in definitions and how they may be used in the context of disability or to separate the natural aging process from other processes, what is clear is that secondary conditions have an enormous impact on a person's health, function and quality of life. In the recently published report by the IOM, secondary conditions were recognized as a major limiting factor in the promotion of good health, independence, and social integration. This term can apply to people that are aging (i.e., depression, fatigue, loneliness, incontinence, etc.) or people with a specific disability. The key element is that the condition is preventable and by knowing that it exists, there can be clearer and more focused health promotion strategies. Although not defined in the same terms, solutions to inaccessibility of important physical and psychological health promotion services may have common solutions. A recently aired news program (CBS Evening News) discussed the use of assistive technology in a chain of grocery stores in Germany to improve accessibility of their facilities for older adults. These stores are attaching magnifying glasses to the shopping carts and providing pull-out seating on the carts to allow customers to sit and read product labels that have been traditionally difficult to read because of small print. Although these accommodations were originally intended to assist older consumers, it is clear that this type of technology could also potentially help people with disabilities. Whether they are called secondary conditions or complications/impairments resulting from the aging process, it is clear that the answer to accessible communities for all people will lie in universal design of structures, programs, and staff training that can allow them to fully participate in all aspects of society.
For other NCHPAD documents and publications regarding universal design and accessibility please go to:
- This month's Director's column, 'Inaccessibility of the Built Environment Hits Home' at http://www.ncpad.org/476/2363/2007-7~Issue~~Inaccessibility~of~the~Built~Environment~
- Rauworth, A.E. (2006). 'Designing a Fitness Facility for All' in the Disability Awareness Edition of the American College of Sports Medicine's Certified News, Vol. 16, Issue 4 found at http://www.acsm.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=ACSM_s_Certified_News
- Look for an article coming soon in the 2007 Developer's Guide (in press) of the Journal for Active Aging (http://www.icaa.cc/publications.htm) in which Amy Rauworth and Blythe Hiss, both of NCPAD, discuss how to create an accessible fitness or wellness facility.
I encourage you to write to me with suggestions for future column topics or to comment on the information provided in this column. You can reach me by e-mail at email@example.com.