- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Pain is a Major Secondary Condition Among People with Spinal Cord Injury
- Amputation and Secondary Conditions: Physical Activity Can Reduce Secondary Conditions in Youths With Limb Differences
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Promoting Enabling and Empowering Fitness Environments to Increase Exercise and Improve Health for People with Multiple Sclerosis
- Spinal Cord Injury and Exercise
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Non-Traditional Exercise as a Way of Preventing Secondary Conditions - Part II
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention
- Defining Secondary Conditions for People with Disabilities
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Osteoporosis Risk and Low Bone Mineral Density for People with Disabilities
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Decrease Secondary Condition Risk by Celebrating National Girls and Women in Sports Day with Exercise
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Universal Design and Accessibility Issues that Impact Health and Function for All
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: The Age of Empowerment: People with Disabilities Decreasing Their Risk of Secondary Condition Development
- Secondary Condition Prevention: Building Your Own "Health Empowerment Zone"
- Shoulder muscle strength in paraplegics before and after kayak ergometer training
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Pressure Sore Prevention in Daily Living Contexts of Adults with Spinal Cord Injury
- Community Voice: This Poor Man's Exercise System
- Exercise Reduces Secondary Conditions in Children with Cerebral Palsy
- Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Lower Limb Amputation and Long-Term Prosthesis Use
- The Combined Effects of Controlled Breathing Techniques and Ventilatory and Upper Extremity Muscle Exercise on Cardiopulmonary Responses in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury
- Spinal Cord Injury
Pressure sores as a secondary condition in people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are a significant concern and require effort and awareness for their prevention. Pressure sores occur when an area of skin or underlying tissue is dead or dying as a result of the loss of blood flow to the area (Garber & Dyerly, 1991). Also known as pressure ulcers, decubitous ulcers, ischemic ulcers, bedsores, skin breakdown, or skin sores, pressure sores occur in up to 80% of individuals with SCI, and of those individuals, 30% have more than one pressure sore (Klebine, Lindsey, & Oberheu, 2000). Pressure sores also may increase both disability and handicap in people with SCI (Krause, Vines, Farley, Sniezek, & Coker, 2001).
Treatment for pressure sores ranges from extended bed rest to surgery, resulting in significantly limited participation in work, self-care, and leisure activities. In 1991, the estimated cost to treat one pressure sore could be as high as $70,000, depending on its severity and the type of treatment. Most importantly, pressure sores are preventable for people with SCI (Park, 1992).
Health promotion, which for people with SCI should include exercise, fitness, nutrition, health behaviors, and stress management, plays a key role in pressure sore prevention, resulting in reduced health care costs and enhanced quality of life (Warms, 1987). According to the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, "Major emphasis on health promotion has the potential long-term benefits of extending longevity, enhancing quality of life, and reducing healthcare costs" (1979). Health promotion is an extremely important aspect of the prevention of pressure sores in people with SCI, and serves as a benefit to all those involved in the process of prevention and treatment.